Canvas

From Xojo Documentation

Revision as of 19:00, 4 June 2021 by Gperlman (talk | contribs)


For web apps, see WebCanvas.

Class (inherits from RectControl)

Canvas controls are very useful for implementing your own graphical controls because you can use the Graphics class drawing commands or the Object2D classes to draw inside the Canvas region. It can also be used to display existing graphics, like the ImageWell.

Events
Activate DropObject MouseExit
Close EnableMenuItems MouseMove
ConstructContextualMenu GotFocus MouseUp
ContextualMenuAction KeyDown MouseWheel
Deactivate KeyUp Open
DoubleClick LostFocus Paint
DragEnter MouseDown ScaleFactorChanged
DragExit MouseDrag
DragOver MouseEnter
Properties
Active fa-lock-32.png Left ScaleFactor fa-lock-32.png
AllowAutoDeactivate LockBottom Scope fa-lock-32.png
AllowFocus LockLeft TabIndex
AllowFocusRing LockRight Tooltip
AllowTabStop LockTop Top
AllowTabs MouseCursor Transparent
Backdrop MouseX fa-lock-32.png TrueWindow fa-lock-32.png
Enabled MouseY fa-lock-32.png Visible
Handle fa-lock-32.png Name fa-lock-32.png Width
Height PanelIndex Window fa-lock-32.png
Index fa-lock-32.png Parent
Methods
AcceptFileDrop Close Scroll
AcceptPictureDrop DrawInto SetFocus
AcceptRawDataDrop Invalidate
AcceptTextDrop Refresh

Notes

Coordinates passed to Canvas events are local to the Canvas object.

To use the Scroll method to scroll the picture in a Canvas control, you need to store the last scroll value for the axis you are scrolling so you can use this to calculate the amount to scroll. This can be done by adding properties to the window that contains the Canvas control or by creating a new class based on the Canvas control that contains properties to hold the last X scroll amount and last Y scroll amount.

If the ScrollControls parameter is True, any controls on top of the Canvas control will also be scrolled. This allows the implementation of a scrolling pane of controls.

The following example scrolls a picture that was added to the project. The properties XScroll and YScroll have been added to the window to hold the amounts the picture has been scrolled. The picture is scrolled 8 points at a time. In the Keydown event of the window, the following code calls the Scroll method whenever the Up, Down, Left, or Right arrow keys are pressed.

Const LeftArrow = 28
Const RightArrow = 29
Const UpArrow = 30
Const DownArrow = 31
Const ScrollUnit = 8 // points

Select Case Asc(Key)
Case LeftArrow
XScroll = XScroll + ScrollUnit
Canvas1.Scroll ScrollUnit, 0

Case RightArrow
XScroll = XScroll - ScrollUnit
Canvas1.Scroll -ScrollUnit, 0

Case UpArrow
YScroll = YScroll + ScrollUnit
Canvas1.Scroll 0, ScrollUnit

Case DownArrow
YScroll = YScroll - ScrollUnit
Canvas1.Scroll 0, -ScrollUnit

End Select

The Scroll method calls the Paint event of the canvas that redraws the picture with the new values of XScroll and YScroll. The Paint event has the following line of code:

g.DrawPicture(myPicture, Xscroll, Yscroll)

Sample Code

This code in the Paint event handler draws a simple red line:

g.DrawingColor = &cff0000
g.DrawLine(0, 10, 100, 100)

To simply draw a picture in a Canvas, use this code in the Paint event:

g.DrawPicture(PictureAddedToProject, 0, 0)

This code (in the Paint event) draws a 3D rectangle with a raised look.

Const White = &cffffff
Const DarkGray = &c8c8c8c
Const LightGray = &cefefef

g.ForeColor = White
g.DrawLine(1, 1, Me.Width, 1)
g.DrawLine(1, Me.Height - 1, 1, 1)
g.DrawingColor = DarkGray
g.DrawLine(Me.Width - 1, 2, Me.Width - 1, Me.Height)
g.DrawLine(1, Me.Height - 1, Me.Width, Me.Height - 1)

//fill in the light gray rectangle
g.DrawingColor = LightGray
g.DrawFilledRectangle(2, 2, Me.Width - 3, Me.Height - 3)

This code draws a gradient from Red to Blue:

Var startColor As Color = &cff0000
Var endColor As Color = &c0000ff

Var p As New Picture(g.Width, g.Height)

Var samt, eamt As Double

For i As Integer = 0 To p.Height
samt = 1 - (i / p.Height)
eamt = i / p.Height
p.Graphics.DrawingColor = RGB((startColor.Red * samt) + (endColor.Red * eamt), _
(startColor.Green *samt) + (endColor.Green * eamt), _
(startColor.Blue * samt) + (endColor.Blue * eamt))
p.Graphics.DrawLine(-1, i, p.Width + 1, i)
Next

g.DrawPicture(p, 0, 0)

This code assigns a picture that has been added to the Project Editor to the Backdrop property in the Open event:

Me.Backdrop = OSLogo

You can use the methods of the Graphics class to modify the picture in any way you like. For example, the following code in the object's Paint event handler adds a caption to the picture:

g.FontName = "Arial"
g.FontSize = 14
g.DrawingColor = &c0080C0
g.DrawText("Mary Jane", 10, 100)

If you instead assigned the graphic to the BackDrop property using the Picture constructor, as shown below, you could manipulate the graphic at the pixel level using the RGBSurface property of the Picture object.

Me.Backdrop = New Picture(210, 30)
Me.Backdrop.Graphics.DrawPicture(YourAppLogo, 0, 0)

See also the examples for the Control class, which give an example of dragging from a Canvas control and the ImageWell class example, which show drag and drop to and from the ImageWell.Image property.

Simulating a Focus Ring on Windows and Linux

Unfortunately, a Focus Ring does not appear on Windows or Linux when a Canvas control gets the focus, but the GotFocus and LostFocus events fire normally. You can easily use them to simulate a focus ring. Create a property on the window called mHasFocus As Boolean.

In the GotFocus event handler:

mHasFocus = True
Canvas1.Invalidate(False)

In the LostFocus event handler:

mHasFocus = False
Canvas1.Invalidate

In the Paint event handler for Canvas1:

#If TargetWindows Or TargetLinux Then
If mHasFocus Then
g.DrawingColor = HighlightColor // or FrameColor, whichever you wish
g.DrawRectangle(0, 0, Me.Width - 1, Me.Height - 1)
Else
g.DrawingColor = RGB(178, 178, 178) // gray
g.DrawRectangle(0, 0, Me.Width - 1, Me.Height - 1)
End If
#Endif

See Also

Graphics, Picture classes